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GALAXY ZOO TWO

Backwards Faded Scaffolding Inquiry

Lab constructed by the University of Wyoming

Cognition in Astronomy, Physics & Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team. 

Big Idea: The countless and varied galaxies observed throughout the Universe have characteristics that can be classified.

Goal: Students will conduct a structured series of scaffolded scientific inquiries about the nature of observed galaxies using the Internet sites prescribed, particularly the  Sloan Digital Sky Survey via  Galaxy Zoo

Computer Setup:

Access  and

a) Select REGISTER and set up a username

b) Enter your email address

c) Create and enter a security question and answer.

d) Select CREATE USER and, when set up, select CONTINUE.

NOTE: You will see a note on the site that this is an archived version of Galaxy Zoo. If you want, you can instead use , but the Hubble images there are a bit harder to classify than the images at the first link (the zoo3 link), which were taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Also, you won’t see the “How to Take Part” tutorial there. It is recommended that you use the zoo3 link, and then you can use the active version if you want to participate for real after submitting the lab.

Phase I: Tutorial: After logging into galaxyzoo.org, if you aren’t already in, select HOW TO TAKE PART and complete the online GALAXY ZOO: HUBBLE TUTORIAL, completing the tables below as you go along. You can either use text highlighting in your word processor to highlight your answers, or place an X in front of your selection.

1) Q: Is the galaxy simply smooth and rounded, with no sign of a disk? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact
SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact SmoothFeatures or DiskStar or Artifact

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

2) Q: How rounded is it? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped
Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped
Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped Completely RoundIn BetweenCigar Shaped

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

3) Q: Could this be a disk viewed edge-on? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on
Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on Yes, edge-onNo, not edge-on

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

4) Q: Does the galaxy have a bulge at its centre? If so, what shape? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge
RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge RoundedBoxyNo Bulge

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

5) Q: Is there any sign of a spiral arm pattern? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral
SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral SpiralNo Spiral

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

6) Q: How tightly wound do the spiral arms appear? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose
TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose
TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose TightMediumLoose

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

7) Q: How many spiral arms are there? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ?
1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ?
1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ? 1 2 3 4 >4 ?

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

8) Q: Is there a sign of a bar feature through the centre of the galaxy? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar
Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar
Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar Bar No Bar

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

9) Q: How prominent is the central bulge, compared with the rest of the galaxy? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant
No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant
No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant No Bulge Just Noticeable Obvious Dominant

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

10) Q: Can you identify an odd feature: a ring or an arc, or is the galaxy disturbed or irregular or is there a merger going on? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None
Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None
Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane None

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

[  Note: more detailed descriptions of these characteristics are defined at: ]

11) Q: Does the galaxy have a mostly clumpy appearance? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

12) Q: How many clumps are there? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

1 2 3 4More than 4 Can’t tell 1 2 3 4More than 4 Can’t tell 1 2 3 4More than 4 Can’t tell 1 2 3 4More than 4 Can’t tell 1 2 3 4More than 4 Can’t tell

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

13) Q: Do the clumps appear in a straight line, a chain, a cluster, or a spiral? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral
Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

14) Q: Is there one clump which is clearly brighter than the others? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

15) Q: Is the brightest clump central to the galaxy? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

16) Q: Does the galaxy appear symmetrical? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

17) Q: Do the clumps appear to be embedded within a larger object? ( Highlight or place an X in front of selection.)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

First record your answers in the blocks above. Then, check your answers and, in the event your answer does not agree, mark a single line through your response to help you keep track.  There is no penalty for having an incorrect answer.

Now you are ready to move forward!

18) At the bottom of the page, select CLICK HERE TO START CLASSIFYING to start making your own observations. Make 10 observations and place an X in front of the appropriate response. ( Ignore boxes that do not apply.)

Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo

19) Rate the relative DIFFICULTY you had distinguishing the following by placing an X in front of the selection.

Rate the difficulty of classifying each of the following: Nearly Impossible Challenging Some easy, some not Pretty Easy Notes or Comments
Presence of Spiral Arms Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Roundness of Galaxies Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Tightness of Spiral Arms Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Number of Spiral Arms Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Evidence of Central Bar Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Dominance of Central Bulge Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Oddness Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Clumpiness Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Number of Clumps Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Arrangement of Clumps Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Brightest Clump Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy
Symmetry Imposs. Chall. Varies Easy

Phase II – Does the Evidence Match the Conclusion?

20) Enter the CLASSIFY Galaxy Zoo scientific database and classify ten (10) additional images. Keep a record of your results in the “Tally Sheet” below using tick marks.  Use two different colored pens or pencils to separate data for galaxies with spiral arms and galaxies without spiral arms.

TALLY SHEETData Table “A” Spiral arms Round Edge-on Round Spiral Tight arms Bar No bulge
In between Boxy Medium Noticeable
No spiral Cigar shape Not edge-on No bulge No spiral Loose No Bar Obvious
Dominant

20B-OPTIONAL: Either print this page and keep a tally using pen marks or keep track digitally by using two different colors of fonts.

21) If a student proposed a generalization that “ most elliptical galaxies are cigar-shaped,” would you agree, disagree with the generalization based on all the evidence you collected SO FAR?  Explain your reasoning and provide specific evidence either from the above questions or from evidence you yourself generate using Galaxy Zoo.

Phase III – What Conclusions Can You Draw From the Evidence?

Galaxies are observed to have numerous different shapes. What conclusions and generalizations can you make from the following data collected by a student in terms of  DO SPIRAL GALAXIES GENERALLY EXHIBIT A CLEAR CENTRAL BULGE?  Explain your reasoning and provide specific evidence, with sketches if necessary, to support your reasoning.

TALLY SHEETBulge Data Table No Bulge4 Noticeable Bulge17 Obvious Bulge19 Dominant Bulge6

22)  Evidence-based Conclusion:

Phase IV – What Evidence Do You Need?

Imagine your team has been assigned the task of designing a scientific observation plan for your favorite news blog about number of spiral arms a galaxy has. Describe precisely what evidence you would need to collect in order to answer the research question of, “ How many arms do spiral galaxies have?”

23)  Create a detailed, step-by-step description of evidence that needs to be collected and a complete explanation of how this could be done—not just “look and see how many arms are there,” but exactly what would someone need to do, step-by-step, to accomplish this. You might include a table and sketches-the goal is to be precise and detailed enough that someone else could follow your procedure.

Phase V – Formulate a Question, Pursue Evidence, and Justify Your Conclusion

Your task is design an answerable research question, propose a plan to pursue evidence, collect data using  Galaxy Zoo (or another suitable source pre-approved by your lab instructor), and create an evidence-based conclusion about the characteristics of galaxies.

Research Report:

Specific Research Question:

Step-by-Step Procedure, with Sketches if Needed, to Collect Evidence:

Data Table and/or Results:

Evidence-based Conclusion Statement:

Phase VI – Summary PRINT YOUR NAME

Create a 50-word summary, in your own words, that describes the nature and characteristics of galaxies we observe in the universe. You should cite specific evidence YOU have collected in your description, not describe what you have learned in class or elsewhere. Feel free to create and label sketches to illustrate your response.

Galaxy Zoo—Hubble Data Sheet (please duplicate as necessary – ignore unused cells)

Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo
Image # SmoothFeatures/DiskStar/Artifact RoundIn betweenCigar shape Edge-onNot edge-on RoundBoxyNo bulge SpiralNo spiral Tight armsMediumLoose Number of arms BarNo Bar No bulgeNoticeableObviousDominant Notes
Odd?YesNo Ring Lens or ArcDisturbed IrregularOther MergerDust lane Clumpy?YesNo Number of clumps Straight Line ChainCluster Spiral Brighter clump?YesNo Bright clump central?YesNo Symmetrical?YesNo Clumps Embedded?YesNo

University of Wyoming Cognition in Astronomy, Physics & Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team 1

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