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12

Strategy Sector Description 1 wedge could come from… Cost Challenges

1. Efficiency – Transport

Increase automobile fuel efficiency

(2 billion cars projected in 2050)

… doubling the efficiency of all world’s cars from 30 to 60 mpg

$ Car size & power

2. Conservation – Transport

Reduce miles traveled by pas- senger and/or freight vehicles

… cutting miles traveled by all passenger vehicles in half

$ Increased public transport, urban

design

3. Efficiency – Buildings

Increase insulation, furnace

and lighting efficiency

… using best available technol- ogy in all new and existing

buildings $

House size, con- sumer demand for

appliances

4. Efficiency – Electricity

Increase efficiency of power generation

… raising plant efficiency from 40% to 60%

$ Increased plant

costs

5. CCS Electricity

90% of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants captured, then

stored underground (800 large coal plants or 1600

natural gas plants)

… injecting a volume of CO2 every year equal to the volume

of oil extracted $$

Possibility of CO2 leakage

6. CCS Hydrogen

Hydrogen fuel from fossil sources with CCS displaces

hydrocarbon fuels

… producing hydrogen at 10 times the current rate

$$$ New infrastructure needed, hydrogen

safety issues

7. CCS Synfuels Capture and store CO2 emitted

during synfuels production from coal

… using CCS at 180 large synfuels plants

$$ Emissions still only break even with

gasoline

8. Fuel Switching – Electricity

Replacing coal-burning electric plants with natural gas plants

(1400 1 GW coal plants)

… using an amount of natural gas equal to that used for all

purposes today

$

Natural gas availability

9. Nuclear Electricity

Displace coal-burning electric plants with nuclear plants

(Add double current capacity)

… ~3 times the effort France put into expanding nuclear

power in the 1980’s, sustained for 50 years

$$ Weapons prolifera- tion, nuclear waste,

local opposition

10. Wind Electricity

Wind displaces coal-based electricity

(10 x current capacity)

… using area equal to ~3% of U.S. land area for wind farms

$$ Not In My Back Yard

(NIMBY)

11. Solar Electricity

Solar PV displaces coal-based electricity

(100 x current capacity)

.. using the equivalent of a 100 x 200 km PV array

$$$ PV cell materials

12. Wind Hydrogen

Produce hydrogen with wind

electricity

… powering half the world’s cars predicted for 2050 with

hydrogen $$$

NIMBY, Hydrogen infrastructure, safety

13. Biofuels

Biomass fuels from plantations replace petroleum fuels

… scaling up world ethanol pro- duction by a factor of 12

$$ Biodiversity, compet-

ing land use

14. Forest Storage

Carbon stored in new forests

… halting deforestation in 50 years

$

Biodiversity, compet- ing land use

15. Soil Storage

Farming techniques increase carbon retention or storage in

soils

… practicing carbon manage- ment on all the world’s agricul-

tural soils

$

Reversed if land is deep-plowed later

= Electricity Production, =Heating and Direct Fuel Use, =Transportation, = Biostorage

Stabilization Wedges – 15 Ways to Cut Carbon

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