1. Labeling theory focuses on:
A. The ways in which society labels different kinds of activities as deviant
B. The social process through which law enforcement learns to recognize the signs of deviance
C. Rehabilitation of deviants through appropriate intervention
D. The social process through which people become deviants
2. One of the major changes associated with the modern prison system is:
a. reduced public spending on prisons.
b. the shift from private to public punishments.
c. the rise of the prison as a “total institution.”
d. the shift from “violence against the body” to “reforming the soul.”
3. An elementary school isn’t a total institution because:
a. students leave every afternoon and adopt different roles at that time.
b. there are bureaucratic rules that govern schools.
c. children cannot be subjected to total institutions.
d. too many children attend elementary school to make it possible.
4. The flagship university in your state recently completed a new state-of-the-art student center, complete with bowling alleys, fast-food outlets, group study space, and the latest green technology. Shortly after it was finished, almost every other university in your state began clamoring for a new student center, too. How would the theory of institutional isomorphism explain this?
a. Universities operate in the same environment and therefore end up looking alike.
b. As tuition rises, parents are increasingly vocal stakeholders.
c. Their student centers were probably also out of date.
d. Universities see an indirect payoff in such an investment.
Please do not answer if you’re not for sure. thank you:)
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